Building wheels

Because setuptools-rust is an extension to setuptools, the standard python -m build command (or pip wheel --no-deps . --wheel-dir dist) can be used to build distributable wheels. These wheels can be uploaded to PyPI using standard tools such as twine.

A key choice to make is whether to upload PEP 384 “stable” (aka “limited”) API wheels which support multiple Python versions in a single binary, or to build individual artifacts for each Python version. There is a longer discussion of this in the PyO3 docs.

This chapter covers each of these options below.

Building for ABI3

setuptools-rust will automatically configure for the limited API when this is set in the [bdist_wheel] configuration section of setup.cfg:

py_limited_api=cp37  # replace with desired minimum Python version

If using a pyproject.toml-based build, then save the above in a file and use the DIST_EXTRA_CONFIG environment variable to instruct setuptools to pick up this extra configuration. (DIST_EXTRA_CONFIG is documented on this page of the setuptools docs.)

It is also possible to pass this setting via the command line, e.g.

python -m build --config-settings=--build-option=--py-limited-api=cp37

Building for multiple Python versions

Using cibuildwheel

cibuildwheel is a tool to build wheels for multiple platforms using Github Actions.

The rtoml package does this, for example.

Building manually

Place a script called with the following contents in your project root (next to the file):

set -ex

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf | sh -s -- -y
export PATH="$HOME/.cargo/bin:$PATH"

# Compile wheels
for PYBIN in /opt/python/cp{37,38,39,310}*/bin; do
    rm -rf /io/build/
    "${PYBIN}/pip" install -U setuptools setuptools-rust wheel
    "${PYBIN}/pip" wheel /io/ -w /io/dist/ --no-deps

# Bundle external shared libraries into the wheels
for whl in /io/dist/*{cp37,cp38,cp39,cp310}*.whl; do
    auditwheel repair "$whl" -w /io/dist/

# Install packages and test
for PYBIN in /opt/python/cp{37,38,39,310}*/bin; do
    "${PYBIN}/pip" install html-py-ever -f /io/dist/

This script can be used to produce wheels for multiple Python versions.

Binary wheels on linux

To build binary wheels on linux, you need to use the manylinux docker container. You will run the from above inside that container.

First, pull the manylinux2014 Docker image:

docker pull

Then use the following command to build wheels for supported Python versions:

docker run --rm -v `pwd`:/io bash /io/

This will create wheels in the dist directory:

$ ls dist
hello_rust-0.1.0-cp37-cp37m-linux_x86_64.whl          hello_rust-0.1.0-cp37-cp37m-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl
hello_rust-0.1.0-cp38-cp38-linux_x86_64.whl           hello_rust-0.1.0-cp38-cp38-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl
hello_rust-0.1.0-cp39-cp39-linux_x86_64.whl           hello_rust-0.1.0-cp39-cp39-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl

It is possible to use any of the manylinux docker images: manylinux1, manylinux2010 or manylinux2014. (Just replace manylinux2014 in the above instructions with the alternative version you wish to use.)

Binary wheels on macOS

For building wheels on macOS it is sufficient to use one of the default python -m build or pip wheel --no-deps . --wheel-dir dist commands.

To build universal2 wheels set the ARCHFLAGS environment variable to contain both x86_64 and arm64, for example ARCHFLAGS="-arch x86_64 -arch arm64". Wheel-building solutions such as cibuildwheel set this environment variable automatically.