Building wheels

Because setuptools-rust is an extension to setuptools, the standard bdist_wheel command is used to build distributable wheels. These wheels can be uploaded to PyPI using standard tools such as twine.

setuptools-rust supports building for the PEP 384 “stable” (aka “limited”) API when the --py-limited-api option is passed to bdist_wheel. If using PyO3 bindings for RustExtension, then the correct pyo3/abi3 sub-feature is automatically enabled. In this way, abi3 wheels can be uploaded to make package distributors’ roles easier, and package users installing from source with python install can use optimizations specific to their Python version.

This chapter of the documentation explains two possible ways to build wheels for multiple Python versions below.

Using cibuildwheel

cibuildwheel is a tool to build wheels for multiple platforms using Github Actions.

The rtoml package does this, for example.

Building manually

Place a script called with the following contents in your project root (next to the file):

set -ex

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf | sh -s -- -y
export PATH="$HOME/.cargo/bin:$PATH"

# Compile wheels
for PYBIN in /opt/python/cp{37,38,39,310}*/bin; do
    rm -rf /io/build/
    "${PYBIN}/pip" install -U setuptools setuptools-rust wheel
    "${PYBIN}/pip" wheel /io/ -w /io/dist/ --no-deps

# Bundle external shared libraries into the wheels
for whl in /io/dist/*{cp37,cp38,cp39,cp310}*.whl; do
    auditwheel repair "$whl" -w /io/dist/

# Install packages and test
for PYBIN in /opt/python/cp{37,38,39,310}*/bin; do
    "${PYBIN}/pip" install html-py-ever -f /io/dist/

This script can be used to produce wheels for multiple Python versions.

Binary wheels on linux

To build binary wheels on linux, you need to use the manylinux docker container. You will run the from above inside that container.

First, pull the manylinux2014 Docker image:

docker pull

Then use the following command to build wheels for supported Python versions:

docker run --rm -v `pwd`:/io bash /io/

This will create wheels in the dist directory:

$ ls dist
hello_rust-0.1.0-cp37-cp37m-linux_x86_64.whl          hello_rust-0.1.0-cp37-cp37m-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl
hello_rust-0.1.0-cp38-cp38-linux_x86_64.whl           hello_rust-0.1.0-cp38-cp38-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl
hello_rust-0.1.0-cp39-cp39-linux_x86_64.whl           hello_rust-0.1.0-cp39-cp39-manylinux2014_x86_64.whl

It is possible to use any of the manylinux docker images: manylinux1, manylinux2010 or manylinux2014. (Just replace manylinux2014 in the above instructions with the alternative version you wish to use.)

Binary wheels on macOS

For building wheels on macOS it is sufficient to run the bdist_wheel command, i.e. bdist_wheel.

To build universal2 wheels set the ARCHFLAGS environment variable to contain both x86_64 and arm64, for example ARCHFLAGS="-arch x86_64 -arch arm64". Wheel-building solutions such as cibuildwheel set this environment variable automatically.